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Original Research Articles


  1. Lu W, Chen S, Yu J, Behrens R, Wiggins J, Sherer N, Liu S-L, Xiong Y, Xiang S-H, and Wu L. The polar region of HIV-1 envelope protein determines viral fusion and infectivity by stabilizing gp120-gp41 association. J. Virol. 2019; 93(7): e02128-18. Abstract
  2. Tirumuru N and Wu L. HIV-1 envelope proteins up-regulate N6-methyladenosine levels of cellular RNA independently of viral replication. J. Biol. Chem. 2019; 294(9): 3249-3260. Abstract
  3. Qin Z, Bonifati S, St. Gelais C, Li T-W, Kim S-H, Antonucci, J, Mahboubi B, Yount J, Xiong Y, Kim B, and Wu L. The dNTPase activity of SAMHD1 is important for its suppression of innate immune responses in differentiated monocytic cells. 2019, in revision.


  1. Chen S, Bonifati S, Qin Z, St. Gelais C, Kodigepalli KM, Barrett BS, Kim SH, Antonucci JM, Ladner KJ, Buzovetsky O, Knecht KM, Xiong Y, Yount JS, Guttridge D, Santiago ML, and Wu L. SAMHD1 suppresses the innate immune responses to viral infections and inflammatory stimuli by inhibiting the NF-kB and interferon pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(16):E3798-E3807. Abstract  Related News StoriesOSU News Highlight
  2. St. Gelais C, Kim SH, Maksimova VV, Buzovetsky B, Knecht K, Shepard C, Kim B, Xiong Y, and Wu L. A cyclin-binding motif in human SAMHD1 is required for its HIV-1 restriction, dNTPase activity, tetramer formation, and efficient phosphorylation. J. Virol. 2018; 92(6): e01787-17.  Abstract
  3. Antonucci JM, Kim SH, St. Gelais C, Bonifati S, Li T-W, Buzovetsky O, Knecht KM, Duchon AA, Xiong Y, Musier-Forsyth K, and Wu L. SAMHD1 suppresses HIV-1 gene expression and negatively modulates reactivation of viral latency in CD4+ T-cells. J. Virol. 2018; 92(15): e00292-18. Abstract
  4. Kodigepalli KM, Bonifati S, Tirumuru N, and Wu L. SAMHD1 modulates in vitro proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia-derived THP-1 cells through the PI3K-Akt-p27 axis. Cell Cycle. 2018; 17(9):1124-1137. Abstract
  5. Lu W, Tirumuru N, St. Gelais C, Koneru PC, Liu C, Kvaratskhelia M, He C, and Wu LN6-methyladenosine-binding proteins suppress HIV-1 infectivity and viral production. J. Biol. Chem. 2018; 293(34):12992-13005. Abstract
  6. Buzovetsky O, Tang C, Knecht K, Antonucci JM, Wu L, Ji X, Xiong Y. The SAM domain of mouse SAMHD1 is critical for its activation and regulation. Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1): 411. Abstract
  7. Liu S, Wang Q, Yu X, Li Y, Guo Y, Liu Z, Sun F, Hou W, Li C, Wu L, Guo D and Chen S. HIV-1 inhibition in cells with CXCR4 mutant genome created by CRISPR-Cas9 and piggyBac recombinant technologies. Sci. Rep. 2018; 8(1):8573. Abstract
  8. Guo J, Liu X, Wu C, Hu J, Ke P, Wu L, Xiong S, Dong C. The transmembrane nucleoporin Pom121 ensures efficient HIV-1 pre-integration complex nuclear import. Virology. 2018; 521:169-174. Abstract
  9. Kodigepalli KM, Li M, Bonifati S, Panfil A, Green P, Liu S-L, and Wu L. SAMHD1 inhibits epithelial cell transformation in vitro and affects leukemia development in xenograft mice. Cell Cycle. 2018; 17(23):2564-2576. Abstract


  1. Kodigepalli KM, Li M, Liu S-L, and Wu L. Exogenous expression of SAMHD1 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-derived HuT78 cells. Cell Cycle. 2017; 16(2):179-188. Abstract
  2. Kohnken R, Kodigepalli KM, Mishra A, Porcu P, and Wu L. MicroRNA-181 contributes to downregulation of SAMHD1 expression in CD4+ T-cells of Sèzary syndrome patients. Leukemia Research. 2017; 52:58-66. Abstract
  3. Duchon AA, St-Gelais C, Titkemeier N, Hatterschide J, Wu L, Musier-Forsyth K. HIV-1 exploits dynamic multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex to enhance viral replication. J. Virol. 2017; 91 (21).  Abstract
  4. Wang Q, Chen S, Xiao Q, Liu Z, Liu S, Hou P, Zhou L, Hou W, Ho W, Li C, Wu L, Guo D. Genome modification of CXCR4 by Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 renders cells resistance to HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2017; 14(1):51. Abstract
  5. Liu Z, Chen S, Jin X, Wang Q, Yang K, Li C, Xiao Q, Hou P, Liu S, Wu S, Hou W, Xiong Y, Kong C, Zhao X, Wu L, Li C, Sun G, Guo D. Genome editing of the HIV co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 by CRISPR-Cas9 protects CD4+ T cells from HIV-1 infection. Cell & Biosci. 2017; 7:47. Abstract
  6. Li C, Wang HB, Kuang WD, Ren XX, Song ST, Zhu HZ, Li Q, Xu LR, Guo HJ, Wu L*, and Wang J-H*. Naf1 regulates HIV-1 latency by suppressing viral promoter-driven gene expression in primary CD4+ T cells. J. Virol. 2017; 91 (1). * Co-corresponding authors. Abstract


  1. St. Gelais C, Kim SH, Ding L, Yount J, Ivanov D, Spearman P, Wu L. A putative cyclin-binding motif in human SAMHD1 contributes to protein phosphorylation, localization and stability. J. Biol. Chem. 2016; 291(51): 26332–26342.  Abstract

  2. Antonucci J, St. Gelais C, de Silva S, Yount JS, Tang C, Ji X, Shepard C, Xiong Y, Kim B, Wu L. SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in cells does not involve ribonuclease activity. Nature Medicine, 2016; 22: 1072–1074. Abstract

  3. Tirumuru N, Zhao B, Lu W, Lu Z, He C and Wu L. N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression. eLife. 2016; 10.7554/eLife.15528. Abstract  News Report

  4. Bonifati S, Daly MB, St. Gelais C Kim SH, Hollenbaugh JA, Shepard C, Kennedy EM, Kim DH, Schinazi RF, Kim B and Wu L. SAMHD1 controls cell cycle status, apoptosis and HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. Virology, 2016, 495: 92–100. Abstract

  5. Wang F, St. Gelais C, de Silva S, Zhang H, Geng Y, Shepard C, Kim B, Yount JS, Wu L. Phosphorylation of mouse SAMHD1 regulates its restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection, but not murine leukemia virus infection. Virology. 2016; 487: 273-284. Abstract

  6. Ren XX, Wang HB, Li C, Jiang JF, Xiong S, Jin X, Wu L, Wang JH. HIV-1 Nef-associated factor 1 enhances viral production by interacting with CRM1 to promote nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA. J. Biol Chem. 2016. 291(9):4580-8. Abstract


  1. St.Gelais C, Roger J, Wu L. Non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein negatively regulates HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T-cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015; 31(8):806-16. Abstract
  2. Tang C, Ji X, Wu L, Xiong Y. Impaired dNTPase activity of SAMHD1 by phosphomimetic mutation of T592. J. Biol Chem2015; 290(44): 26352-9. Abstract
  3. Mates JM, de Silva S, Lustberg M, Van Deusen K, Baiocchi R, Wu L*, Kwiek JJ*. A Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, AR-42, reactivates HIV-1 from chronically infected cells. Retrovirology: Research and Treatment. 2015; 7: 1–5. *corresponding authors. Abstract   


  1. St. Gelais C, de Silva S, Hach JC, White TE, Diaz-Griffero F, Yount JS, Wu L. Identification of cellular proteins interacting with the retroviral restriction factor SAMHD1. J. Virol. 2014;88(10):5834-44. Abstract
  2. de Silva S, Wang F, Hake TS, Porcu P, Wong HK, Wu L. Downregulation of SAMHD1 expression correlates with promoter DNA methylation in Sézary syndrome patients. J. Invest Dermatol. 2014;134, 562-565. Abstract
  3. Sharma A, Slaughter A, Nivedita J, Feng L, Kessl JK, Fadel HJ, Malani N, Male F, Wu L, Poeschla E, Bushman FD, Fuchs JR, Kvaratskhelia M. A new class of multimerization selective inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase. PLoS Pathogens. 2014. 10(5): e1004171. Abstract


  1. de Silva S, Hoy H, Hake TS, Wong HK, Porcu P, Wu L. Promoter methylation regulates SAMHD1 gene expression in human CD4+ T cells. J. Biol. Chem. 2013; 288(13):9284-92. Abstract
  2. Sharma A, Larue RC, Plumb MR, Malani N, Male F, Slaughter A, Kessl JJ, Shkriabai N, Coward E, Aiyer SS, Green PL, Wu L, Roth MJ, Bushman FD, Kvaratskhelia M. BET proteins promote efficient murine leukemia virus integration at transcription start sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(29):12036-41. Abstract
  3. Dong C, Zhao G, Zhong M, Yue Y, Wu L, Xiong S. RNA sequencing and transcriptomal analysis of human monocyte to macrophage differentiation. Gene. 2013; 519 (2): 279-287. Abstract
  4. Barrios CS, Castillo L, Giam CZ, Wu L, Beilke MA. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by HTLV-1/2 Tax proteins in vitro. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013; 29(7):1061-1067. Abstract
  5. Zhai RR, Jiang AP, Wang HB, Ma L, Ren XX, Jiang JF, Wu L, Wei JF, Wang JH. Histamine enhances HIV-1-induced modulation of dendritic cells to skew naïve T cell differentiation toward regulatory T cells. Virology. 2013; 442(2):163-172. Abstract


  1. St Gelais C, de Silva S, Amie SM, Coleman C, Hoy H, Hollenbaugh J, Kim B, and Wu L. SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 infection in dendritic cells (DCs) by dNTP depletion, but its expression in DCs and primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes cannot be upregulated by interferons. Retrovirology. 2012; 9, 105.Abstract
  2. Zhang C, de Silva S, Wang J, Wu L. Co-evolution of primate SAMHD1 and lentivirus Vpx leads to the loss of the vpx gene in HIV-1 ancestor. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e37477. Abstract
  3. Coon S, Wang D, Wu L. Polymorphisms of the SAMHD1 gene are not associated with the infection and natural control of HIV-1 in Europeans and African Americans. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012, 28(12):1565-73. Abstract
  4. de Silva S, Planelles V, Wu L. Differential effects of Vpr on single-cycle and spreading HIV-1 infections in CD4+ T-cells and dendritic cells. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e35385. Abstract
  5. St Gelais C, Coleman CM, Wang JH, Wu L. HIV-1 Nef enhances dendritic cell-mediated viral transmission to CD4+ T cells and promotes T-cell activation. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e34521. Abstract
  6. Kessl JJ, Jena N, Koh Y, Taskent-Sezgin H, Slaughter A, Feng L, de Silva S, Wu L, Le Grice SF, Engelman A, Fuchs JR, Kvaratskhelia M. A multimode, cooperative mechanism of action of allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. J. Biol. Chem. 2012; 287(20):16801-11. Abstract


  1. Zhu Y, Chen G, Lv F, Wang X, Ji X, Xu Y, Sun J, Wu L, Zheng YT, Gao G. Zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits HIV-1 infection by selectively targeting multiply spliced viral mRNAs for degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15834. Abstract
  2. Coleman CM, Spearman P, Wu L. Tetherin does not significantly restrict dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission and its expression is upregulated by newly synthesized HIV-1 Nef. Retrovirology. 2011; 8:26. Abstract
  3. Qin Y, Li Y, Liu W, Tian R, Guo Q, Li S, Li H, Zhang D, Zheng Y, Wu L, Lan K, Wang J. Penicillium marneffei-stimulated dendritic cells enhance HIV-1 trans-infection and promote viral infection by activating primary CD4+ T cells. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e27609. Abstract


  1. Raghavendra NK, Shkriabai N, Graham RLJ, Hess S, Kvaratskhelia M, Wu L. Identification of host proteins associated with HIV-1 preintegration complexes isolated from infected CD4+ cells. Retrovirology. 2010; 7:66. Abstract
  2. Blanchet FP, Moris A, Nikolic DS, Lehmann M, Cardinaud S, Stalder R, Garcia E, Dinkins C, Leuba F, Wu L, Schwartz O, Deretic V, Piguet V. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 inhibition of immunoamphisomes in dendritic cells impairs early innate and adaptive immune responses. Immunity. 2010 May 28;32(5):654-69. Abstract
  3. Chung NP, Breun SK, Bashirova A, Baumann JG, Martin TD, Karamchandani JM, Rausch JW, Le Grice SF, Wu L, Carrington M, KewalRamani VN. HIV-1 transmission by dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is regulated by determinants in the carbohydrate recognition domain that are absent in liver/lymph node-SIGN (L-SIGN). J. Biol. Chem. 2010;15;285(3):2100-12. Abstract


  1. Wang JH, Kwas C, Wu L. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), but not ICAM-2 and -3, is important for dendritic cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J. Virol. 2009; 83(9):4195-204. Abstract
  2. Dong C, Kwas C, Wu L. Transcriptional restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression in undifferentiated primary monocytes. J. Virol. 2009; 83(8):3518-27. Abstract
  3. Kyei GB, Dinkins C, Davis AS, Roberts E, Singh SB, Dong C, Wu L, Kominami E, Ueno T, Yamamoto A, Federico M, Panganiban A, Vergne I, and Deretic V. Autophagy pathway intersects with HIV-1 biosynthesis and regulates viral yields in macrophages. J. Cell Biol. 2009; 186: 255-268. Abstract

2008 & Before 2008

  1. Wang JH, Wells C, Wu L. Macropinocytosis and cytoskeleton contribute to dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells. Virology. 2008; 381(1):143-54. Abstract
  2. Janas AM, Dong C, Wang JH, Wu L. Productive infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in dendritic cells requires fusion-mediated viral entry. Virology. 2008; 375(2):442-51. Abstract
  3. Dong C, Janas AM, Wang JH, Olson WJ, and Wu L. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in immature and mature dendritic cells reveals dissociable cis- and trans-infection. J. Virol. 2007; 81:(20) 11352-62 Abstract
  4. Wang JH, Janas AM, Olson WJ, Wu L. Functionally distinct transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mediated by immature and mature dendritic cells. J. Virol. 2007; 81(17):8933-43. Abstract; About Journal Cover Illustration
  5. Wang JH, Janas AM, Olson WJ, KewalRamani VN, Wu L. CD4 coexpression regulates DC-SIGN-mediated transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Virol. 2007; 81(5):2497-507. Abstract
  6. Wu L, Martin TD, Han YC, Breun SK, KewalRamani VN. Trans-dominant cellular inhibition of DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Retrovirology. 2004; 28;1(1):14 Abstract
  7. Wu L, Martin TD, Carrington M, KewalRamani VN. Raji B cells, misidentified as THP-1 cells, stimulate DC-SIGN-mediated HIV transmission. Virology. 2004; 5;318(1):17-23. Abstract
  8. McDonald D, Wu L, Bohks SM, KewalRamani VN, Unutmaz D, Hope TJ. Recruitment of HIV and its receptors to dendritic cell-T cell junctions. Science. 2003; 300(5623):1295-7. Abstract
  9. Bashirova AA, Wu L, Cheng J, Martin TD, Martin MP, Benveniste RE, Lifson JD, KewalRamani VN, Hughes A, Carrington M. Novel member of the CD209 (DC-SIGN) gene family in primates. J. Virol. 2003;77(1):217-27 Abstract
  10. Wu L, Martin TD, Vazeux R, Unutmaz D, KewalRamani VN. Functional evaluation of DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies reveals DC-SIGN interactions with ICAM-3 do not promote human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J. Virol. 2002;76(12):5905-14. Abstract
  11. Wu L, Bashirova AA, Martin TD, Villamide L, Mehlhop E, Chertov AO, Unutmaz D, Pope M, Carrington M, KewalRamani VN. Rhesus macaque dendritic cells efficiently transmit primate lentiviruses independently of DC-SIGN. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(3):1568-73 Abstract
  12. Bashirova AA, Geijtenbeek TB, van Duijnhoven GC, van Vliet SJ, Eilering JB, Martin MP, Wu L, Martin TD, Viebig N, Knolle PA, KewalRamani VN, van Kooyk Y, Carrington M. A dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)-related protein is highly expressed on human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and promotes HIV-1 infection. J. Exp. Med. 2001; 193: 671-678. Abstract

Reviews, Viewpoints and Book Chapters (Invited and Peer-reviewed)

  1. Wu L. HIV evades immune surveillance by methylation of viral RNA. Biochemistry. 2019; 58 (13) 1699-1700. Abstract
  2. Chen S, Bonifati S, Qin Z, St. Gelais C, Wu L. SAMHD1 suppression of antiviral immune responses. Trends in Microbiology. 2019; 27(3):254-267. Abstract
  3. Chemudupati M, Kenney A, Bonifati S, Zani A, McMichael T, Wu L. Yount J. From APOBEC to ZAP: Diverse mechanisms used by cellular restriction factors to inhibit virus infections. BBA Molecular Cell Research. 2019; 1866(3):382-394. Abstract
  4. Antonucci JM, St. Gelais C, Wu L. The dynamic interplay between HIV-1, SAMHD1, and the innate antiviral response. Front. Immunol. 2017; 8:1541. Abstract
  5. Kenney AD, Dowdle JA, Bozzacco L, McMichael TM, St Gelais C, Panfil AR, Sun Y, Schlesinger LS, Anderson MZ, Green PL, López CB, Rosenberg BR, Wu L, Yount JS. Human Genetic Determinants of Viral Diseases. Annu. Rev. Genet. 2017; 51:241-263. Abstract
  6. Kohnken R, Kodigepalli KM, Wu L. Regulation of deoxynucleotide metabolism in cancer: novel mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Molecular Cancer. 2015; 14(1):176. Abstract
  7. de Silva S, St. Gelais C, Nagaraja T, and Wu L. Counteraction of SAMHD1 by Vpx. Encyclopedia of AIDS. Edited by Hope T, Richman DD, Stevenson M. Springer, 2015. Abstract
  8. Wong HK, Wu L, and Porcu P, de Silva S, Mishra A. Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma: Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome. Epigenetics and Dermatology, co-edited by Lu, Q., Chang CC, and Richardson BC. Academic Press. March 2015. ISBN: 978-0128009574. Abstract
  9. Wu L. Samhd1 knockout mice: modeling retrovirus restriction in vivo. Retrovirology. 2013; 10:142. Abstract
  10. Wu L. Cellular and biochemical mechanisms of the retroviral restriction factor SAMHD1. ISRN Biochemistry. 2013; Article ID 728392, 11 pages. doi:10.1155/2013/728392. Abstract
  11. Wu L. SAMHD1: a new contributor to HIV-1 restriction in resting CD4+ T-cells. Retrovirology. 2012, 9:88 Abstract
  12. Coleman CM, Gelais CS, Wu L. Cellular and viral mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission mediated by dendritic cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 762:109-130. Abstract
  13. Wu L. The role of monocyte-lineage cells in HIV persistence: mechanisms and progress. Journal of Microbes and Infections. 2011; 6 (3): 129-132. Abstract
  14. St Gelais, C., and Wu L. SAMHD1: a new insight into HIV-1 restriction in myeloid cells. Retrovirology. 2011; 8:55 Abstract
  15. de Silva S., and Wu L. TRIM5 acts as more than a retroviral restriction factor. Viruses. 2011; 3(7):1204-1209. Abstract
  16. Coleman CM, Wu L. HIV interactions with monocytes and dendritic cells: viral latency and reservoirs. Retrovirology. 2009, 6:51 Abstract
  17. Janas AM, Wu L. HIV-1 interactions with cells: from viral binding to cell-cell transmission. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2009; Chapter 26:Unit 26.5 Abstract
  18. Wu L. Biology of HIV mucosal transmission. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2008; 3(5):534-540 Abstract
  19. Wu L*, KewalRamani VN. Dendritic-cell interactions with HIV: infection and viral dissemination. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006; 6(11):859-68 (*corresponding authorAbstract

Edited Books

Wu L. and Schwartz O. Editors. HIV Interactions with Dendritic Cells: Infection and Immunity. Springer Science + Business Media. (10 chapters, 310 pages). New York. September 2013. Book Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 762. ISBN 978-1-4614-4432-9. Weblink